National Academy of Medical Sciences of Ukraine
State Institution "The National Research Center for Radiation Medicine"

ISSN 2313-4607 (Online)
ISSN 2304-8336 (Print)

Problems of Radiation Medicine and Radiobiology





A. Ye. Prysyazhnyuk1, D. A. Bazyka1, A. Yu. Romanenko1, N. A. Gudzenko1, M. M. Fuzik1,
N. K. Trotsyuk1, Z. P. Fedorenko2, L. O. Gulak2, K. M. Slipenyuk1, N. G. Babkina1,
O. M. Khukhrianska1, Ye. L. Goroh2, Zh. M. Berestyana1
1State Institution National Research Center for Radiation Medicine of the National Academy of Medical Sciences of Ukraine, Melnykov str., 53, Kyiv, 04050, Ukraine
2National Cancer Institute, 33/43 Lomonosov str., Kyiv, 03022, Ukraine

Objective. The goal of this study was to define levels and dynamic trends of cancer incidence at whole and some separate sites in groups of Ukrainian population affected by the Chornobyl accident during a long period of observation.
Materials and methods. Those groups were Chornobyl accident recovery operation workers (CRW) of 19861987 years of participation, evacuees from Prypyat town and 30-km zone and residents of the most contaminated territories of Ukraine. Analysis was carried out with the standard methods of descriptive epidemiology: calculation of crude, age-specific and age-adjusted incidence rates with standard errors and confidence intervals.
Results, discussion and conclusions. This study showed that all cancer incidences exceeded the national level only in CRW group. Decrease of cancer incidence rate in the recent years might be caused by shortened average life expectancy in Ukrainian population, especially in males. Statistically significant increase of leukemia incidence in CRW group was registered as well. Besides, in all three main affected groups there was revealed significant excess of thyroid cancer. Irradiation of thyroid due to radioactive iodine fallouts might be a main cause of this phenomenon.
Increase of thyroid cancer incidence was registered not only in children, but also in adolescents and adults. Appearance of excess thyroid cancer cases as an effect of radiation exposure tends to increase during the time. Significant excess was also revealed for breast cancer in female CRW group. Because latency period for different nosological forms of radiation-induced malignant tumors varies widely, profound attention in further studies should be drawn not only to thyroid, breast cancers and leukemia, but also to malignancies with longer latent period: lung, stomach, colon, ovary, urinary bladder, kidney cancer and multiple myeloma.

Key words: Chornobyl accident, ionizing radiation, malignant tumors, leukemia, thyroid cancer, breast cancer.

Problems of radiation medicine and radiobiology. 2014;19:147-169.


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