National Academy of Medical Sciences of Ukraine
State Institution "The National Research Center for Radiation Medicine"

ISSN 2313-4607 (Online)
ISSN 2304-8336 (Print)

Problems of Radiation Medicine and Radiobiology



K. M. Loganovsky1, P. A. Fedirko1, D. Marazziti2, K. V. Kuts1, K. Yu. Antypchuk1, I. V. Perchuk1,
T. F. Babenko1, T. K. Loganovska1, O. O. Kolosynska1, G. Yu. Kreinis1, S. V. Masiuk1, L. L. Zdorenko1,
N. A. Zdanevich1, N. A. Garkava3, R. Yu. Dorichevska1, Z. L. Vasilenko1, V. I. Kravchenko1, N. V. Drosdova1, Yu. V. Yefimova1, A. V. Malinyak1

1 State Institution «National Research Center for Radiation Medicine of the National Academy of Medical Sciences of Ukraine», 53 Yuriia Illienka Str., Kyiv, 04050, Ukraine
2 Dipartimento di Medicina Clinica e Sperimentale Section of Psychiatry, University of Pisa, Via Roma, 67, I 56100, Pisa, Italy
3 State Institution «Dnipropetrovsk Medical Academy of the Ministry of Health of Ukraine», 9 Vernadsky Str., Dnipro, 49044, Ukraine


Background. Ionizing radiation (IR) can affect the brain and the visual organ even at low doses, while provoking cognitive, emotional, behavioral, and visual disorders. We proposed to consider the brain and the visual organ as potential targets for the influence of IR with the definition of cerebro-ophthalmic relationships as the «eye-brain axis».
Objective. The present work is a narrative review of current experimental, epidemiological and clinical data on radiation cerebro-ophthalmic effects in children, individuals exposed in utero, astronauts and interventional radiologists. Materials and methods. The review was performed according to PRISMA guidelines by searching the abstract and scientometric databases PubMed/MEDLINE, Scopus, Web of Science, Embase, PsycINFO, Google Scholar, published from 1998 to 2021, as well as the results of manual search of peer-reviewed publications.
Results. Epidemiological data on the effects of low doses of IR on neurodevelopment are quite contradictory, while data on clinical, neuropsychological and neurophysiological on cognitive and cerebral disorders, especially in the left, dominant hemisphere of the brain, are nore consistent. Cataracts (congenital – after in utero irradiation) and retinal angiopathy are more common in prenatally-exposed people and children. Astronauts, who carry out longterm space missions outside the protection of the Earth’s magnetosphere, will be exposed to galactic cosmic radiation (heavy ions, protons), which leads to cerebro-ophthalmic disorders, primarily cognitive and behavioral disorders and cataracts. Interventional radiologists are a special risk group for cerebro-ophthalmic pathology – cognitive deficits, mainly due to dysfunction of the dominant and more radiosensitive left hemisphere of the brain, and cataracts, as well as early atherosclerosis and accelerated aging.
Conclusions. Results of current studies indicate the high radiosensitivity of the brain and eye in different contingents of irradiated persons. Further research is needed to clarify the nature of cerebro-ophthalmic disorders in different exposure scenarios, to determine the molecular biological mechanisms of these disorders, reliable dosimetric support and taking into account the influence of non-radiation risk factors.
Key words: ionizing radiation, brain, eye, cerebro-ophthalmic effects, radiation emergencies, prenatal irradiation, space flights, interventional radiology.

Problems of Radiation Medicine and Radiobiology.
2021;26:57-97. doi: 10.33145/2304-8336-2021-26-57-97

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