National Academy of Medical Sciences of Ukraine
State Institution "The National Research Center for Radiation Medicine"

ISSN 2313-4607 (Online)
ISSN 2304-8336 (Print)

Problems of Radiation Medicine and Radiobiology



 V. G. Bebeshko,  K. M. Bruslova, L. O. Lyashenko, N. M. Tsvetkova, S. G. Galkina,
Zh. S. Yaroshenko, L. O. Gonchar, O. Y. Boyarska, V. F. Kuzmenko, I. V. Trykhlib, N. V. Kavardakova

State Institution National Research Center for Radiation Medicine of the National Academy of Medical Sciences of Ukraine, 53 Yuriia Illienka Str., Kyiv, 04050, Ukraine


Objective: to assess the thyroid disease in the late observation period in children who had received chemo- and radiotherapy for the acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) taking into account gender, age period and disease subtype.
Materials and methods. The incidence and nature of thyroid disease (hypothyroidism, thyroiditis, and thyroid cancer) were studied in children-survivors of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) being in remission from 6 to 25 years. The distribution of patients by leukemia subtypes was as follows: common 67.4 %, pre-B 23.9 %, pro-B and T-cell 4.3 %. Children had been receiving chemo- and radiotherapy according to the protocol. Regarding the age of patients at the time of ALL diagnosis the prepubertal, pubertal and postpubertal periods were taken into account. The endocrine diseases in family history, body weight at birth, serum content of free thyroxine, pituitary thyroidstimulating hormone, cortisol, iron, ferritin and thyroperoxidase antibodies were evaluated and assayed.
Results. Thyroid disease in children was emerging in the first 23 years after the ALL treatment with an incidence of 22.8 % (hypothyroidism 14.1 %, autoimmune thyroiditis 7.6 %, papillary cancer 1.1 %). Seven children in this group had received radiotherapy (12-18 Gy doses) on the central nervous system (CNS). No correlation was found between the radiation exposure event itself, radiation dose to the CNS and thyroid disease in the long-term follow-up period. Thyroid cancer had developed in a child 11 years upon chemo- and radiotherapy. Hypothyroidism was more often diagnosed in the patients of prepubertal age (rs = 0.49). There were endocrine diseases in the family history in about a half of children, being significantly higher than in the general sample ( < 0.05). The body weight at birth of a child who had later developed hypothyroidism was less than in children having got thyroiditis (rs = 0.57).
Conclusions. Disorders in endocrine regulation and of thyroid in particular can affect the prognosis of blood cancer course in the long-term follow-up in children, especially in prepubertal age, which requires systematic supervision by hematologist and endocrinologist.
Key words: children, acute lymphoblastic leukemia, chemotherapy, radiotherapy, thyroid cancer, hypothyroidism, thyroiditis, late period.

Problems of Radiation Medicine and Radiobiology.
2021;26:309-318. doi: 10.33145/2304-8336-2021-26-309-318

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