National Academy of Medical Sciences of Ukraine
State Institution "The National Research Center for Radiation Medicine"

ISSN 2313-4607 (Online)
ISSN 2304-8336 (Print)

Problems of Radiation Medicine and Radiobiology



N. A. Pomortseva, D. . Gudkov

Institute of Hydrobiology of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, 12 Heroiv Stalinhradu Ave., Kyiv, 04210, Ukraine


Objective. Assessment of the effect of additional acute irradiation (AAI) in sub-lethal range on the peculiarities of formation of qualitative composition of red blood and adaptive possibilities of the hematopoietic system of fish in reservoirs within the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone (CEZ), contaminated with radionuclides.
Materials and methods. We studied the Prussian carp Carassius gibelio Bloch (23 years old) from Vershyna Lake (impacted reservoir in the CEZ) and Dibrova Lake (reference reservoir), where the average absorbed dose rate (ADR) was, respectively, 110.80 and 0.07 μGy/h. The fish were exposed by a single X-ray dose at the unit RUM-17 (ADR 0.89 Gy/min) at dose of 2.5, 5.0 and 10.0 Gy. Morphological and cytogenetic studies of red blood cells were performed dynamically for the 1st, 7th and 30th day after irradiation. The blood was taken from the tail vein and stained by Pappenheims method. Cytomorphological abnormalities of erythrocytes were analyzed for 3000 cells ().
Results. In blood of fish from the impacted reservoir (Vershyna Lake) on the 1st day after AAI, the average number of all types of deformations of erythrocytes cells increased in 2.1 times, and in fish of the reference reservoir (Dibrova Lake) in 5.2 times. General spectrum of erythrocyte disturbances in fish of Vershyna Lake has increased from 4 to 6 types (in 1.5 times), and Dibrova Lake from 2 to 5 types (in 2.5 times). However, further observations of the dynamics of morphological disorders of fishs blood cells from Vershyna Lake on the 7th and the 30th day after AAI showed a significant increase in pathological processes in comparison with the reference reservoir, namely an increase in the number of gross damage of DNA molecules amitosis (on average in 14.8 times), erythrocytes with septum in the nucleus (in 1.9 times), as well as structural disorders in the cells protuberances (in 10.5 times), cells with vacuolate cytoplasm (in 8.6 times).
Conclusions. The red blood cells of the fish of the impacted reservoir show a greater vulnerability to AAI, which manifests itself in an increase in the number of erythrocytes with pathology of mitosis and may indicate a violation of the genetic structures of cells due to long-term radiation exposure.
Key words: Chornobyl Exclusion Zone, radioactive contamination, fish, peripheral blood, additional acute irradiation, morphological disorders of red blood cells.

Problems of Radiation Medicine and Radiobiology.
2019;24:270-283. doi: 10.33145/2304-8336-2019-24-270-283

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