National Academy of Medical Sciences of Ukraine
State Institution "The National Research Center for Radiation Medicine"

ISSN 2313-4607 (Online)
ISSN 2304-8336 (Print)

Problems of Radiation Medicine and Radiobiology



А. V. Kutsak

Zaporizhzhya State Medical University, 26 Mayakovsky ave., Zaporizhzhya, 69035, Ukraine


The article focuses on a scientific literature review connected with data summarizing of long-term studies of population exposure to natural ionizing radiation sources. In order to assess the current state of the problem of ensuring radiation protection of the population of Ukraine from natural sources of radiation, the author analyzes the scientific approaches and principles of the theory of anti-radiation protection by examining the recommendations of leading international organizations and the domestic specifics of limiting irradiation from natural sources. Moreover, it highlights the main historical stages of the introduction of national regulations for limiting population exposure to certain natural radiation sources. Besides, the author presents research results of foreign and national scientists towards the natural radioactivity of environmental compartments and area of human habitation. According to the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR), an average annual effective radiation dose per capita from natural sources is 2.4 mSv that is 46 % of the total dose of human exposure. In Ukraine, a dose from natural radiation sources is 3.5 mSv per year that determines 60 % of the total dose of human exposure. Reported by UNSCEAR an average annual dose of human exposure to all factors is 5.2 mSv, while the natural component with the technogenic enhanced background contributes 4.2 mSv per year to the total dose where there is radon-222 – 1.5 mSv per year. In Ukraine, the total dose of population exposure is rather more and is 5.9 mSv per year, while the natural component ratio with the technogenic enhanced background is notably higher and up to 5.1 mSv per year. Part of radon-222 is 2.4 mSv per year in it. Attention is paid to the reassessment of the magnitude of radiation risks caused by radon, which served as the basis for improving approaches aimed at ensuring radon safety for the population. Radon is the most determining radiation factor for the population that requires careful regulatory control by government programs.
Key words: natural radioactivity, population exposure to natural radiation sources, radiation safety of the population, radon problem.

Problems of radiation medicine and radiobiology.
2018;23:49_60. doi: 10.33145/2304-8336-2018-23-49-60.

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