National Academy of Medical Sciences of Ukraine
State Institution "The National Research Center for Radiation Medicine"


ISSN 2313-4607 (Online)
ISSN 2304-8336 (Print)

Problems of Radiation Medicine and Radiobiology

  
 

   

K. Dondoladze, M. Nikolaishvili, T. Museliani, G. Jikia

Ivane Beritashvili Experimental Biomedicine Center, 14 Gotua St., Tbilisi, 0164, Georgia

EFFECT OF RADIATION ON AGING PROCESSES AND TELOMERE LENGTH

Telomeres are the ending areas of chromosomes protective caps that ensure the stability of chromosomes. Telomere shortening is one of the most important biological signs of aging and is involved in cellular aging and the mitotic clock mechanism. One of the known mechanisms of the impact of radiation on the aging process is damage to telomeres by free radicals. Oxidative stress has a toxic effect on telomere length. The increase in free radicals occurs under the action of both ionizing and non-ionizing radiation, although antioxidant mechanisms are often able to neutralize harmful free radicals. Low doses of non-ionizing and ionizing radiation even cause the activation of antioxidant systems, however, when the body is exposed to radiation at a high dose or for a long time, or if pathological processes with oxidative stress occur in the body, damage to cells becomes more noticeable, and aging processes accelerate. Maintaining telomere length and a normal rate of aging is important for health. In this review, we want to discuss the role of ionizing and non-ionizing radiation in cellular aging, in particular, in the shortening of telomere length.
Key words: aging, radiation, oxidative stress, telomere length, toxicity.

Problems of Radiation Medicine and Radiobiology.
2022;27:107-119. doi: 10.33145/2304-8336-2022-27-107-119

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