National Academy of Medical Sciences of Ukraine
State Institution "The National Research Center for Radiation Medicine"


ISSN 2313-4607 (Online)
ISSN 2304-8336 (Print)

Problems of Radiation Medicine and Radiobiology

  
 

   

D. E. Afanasyev1, S. F. Liubarets2

1State Institution National Research Center for Radiation Medicine of the National Academy of Medical Sciences of Ukraine, 53 Yuriia Illienka St., Kyiv, 04050, Ukraine
2O. O. Bogomolets National Medical University of the Ministry of Health of Ukraine, 13 Tarasa Shevchenka Blvd., Kyiv, 01601, Ukraine

ODONTOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF IONIZING RADIATION (review)

Background. Odontological effects of ionizing radiation (IR) as a result of radiotherapy, the consequences of acci-dents at nuclear power plants and industry, individual occupational exposure, etc. deserve significant attention interns of radiation medicine and radiation safety.

Objective: to analyze and summarize clinical and experimental data on the odontological radiation effects.
Materials and methods. Object: the pathological changes in the hard tissues of teeth, pulp, periodontium, mucous membranes of the mouth and jaws due to exposure to IR. Method: search in the PubMed / MEDLINE, Google Scholar abstract medical and biological databases, scientific libraries of the relevant sources of scientific information.
Results. Radiobiological effects of IR due to its direct and indirect action are manifested throughout the period of odontogenesis and formation of the facial skeleton. Experimental and clinical data (in children and adults) indicate the increased risk of dental caries, reduction of pain threshold and vascularization of tooth pulp along with its fibrosis and atrophy, periodontal dysfunction, which predispose to a high probability of tooth loss. Abnormalities in the activity of osteoblasts and cementoblasts of dental periosteum and osteoblasts of alveolar process in combination with circulatory disorders due to endothelial cell death, hyalinization, thrombosis and vascular obliteration increase the risk of jaw osteoradionecrosis. Children who have undergone a prenatal exposure to IR as a result of the Chornobyl NPP accident have a premature change of teeth. Deterioration of periodontal tissues and early development of acute and complicated dental caries are typical for children and adults affected by the Chornobyl disaster.
Conclusions. Summarized data on the effects of radiation exposure under different conditions on teeth primordia (i.e. immature teeth), their formation and eruption in experimental and clinical settings, as well as on the odontological radiation effects in adults are summarized. Condition of the teeth in the Chornobyl NPP accident survivors is described. Understanding and taking into account the radiobiological odontological effects is necessary in the light of planning, preparing, and conducting local radiation therapy and developing the standards of radiation safety and measures to protect professionals and the public in the event of possible radiation accidents at the nuclear power plants and industry facilities.
Key words: ionizing radiation, radiation therapy, Chornobyl NPP accident, odontology, tooth enamel, dentin, pulp, periodontium, caries, odontogenesis.

Problems of Radiation Medicine and Radiobiology.
2020;25:18-55. doi: 10.33145/2304-8336-2020-25-18-55

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