National Academy of Medical Sciences of Ukraine
State Institution "The National Research Center for Radiation Medicine"


ISSN 2313-4607 (Online)
ISSN 2304-8336 (Print)

Problems of Radiation Medicine and Radiobiology

  
 

   

D. I. Zabolotnyi, N. S. Mishchanchuk

State Institution O. S. Kolomiychenko Institute of Otolaryngology, National Academy of Medical Sciences of Ukraine, 3 Zoolohichna St., Kyiv, 03057, Ukraine

HIRUDOTHERAPY IN PRESBYACUZIS PRAECOX IN CLEAN-UP WORKERS AFTER THE CHORNOBYL ACCIDENT DURING THE POST-CATASTROPHE YEARS

Objective. to study the hirudotherapy efficacy in presbyacuzis praecox in clean-up workers (CUWs) of the Chornobyl disaster (ChD) during the post-accident years.
Materials and methods. From archive data of previously examined 8,136 males CUWs we selected among them 129 persons with the determined presbyacuzis praecox during the post-accident years. According to the physical dosimetry data the individual radiation of received by CUWs during the work on a rotational scheme in the Chornobyl exclusion zone from the end of 1986 to 19921994 amounted to 0.210.50 Gy. The examinations were carried out using a modern standard set of audiometric, vestibulometric and electrophysiological methods. Two forms of sensory and neural hearing loss in the elderly were distinguished, namely the presbyacuzis and presbyacuzis praecox. Prior to work in the exclusion zone, patients auditory and vestibular functions were within normal range. Among 129 patients, 68 ones with presbyacuzis praecox were included in two main age groups (aged 4049 and 5059 yrs) and were treated using hirudotherapy, taking into consideration their coagulation hemostasis. Other 61 patients of analogical age groups were treated by allopathotherapy. For the analysis of results obtained, techniques of variational statistics were used.
Results. Direct correlation (r = 0.71) between inhibitory processes in central areas of the auditory analyzer in presbyacuzis praecox in CUWs was established by electrophysiology and by speech audiometry data obtained before the treatment. Hyperacusis signs were detected in CUWs of two main and two control groups. Following the use of two treatment schemas, a significant improving of auditory functions was found (p < 0.05) according to tone and speech audiometries. The positive hirudotherapy effect concerning hearing functions was registered in 88% cases (in 59 CUWs among 68 ones); if allopathotherapy had been used, such effect was found in 65% cases (in 45 control patients among 61 ones of control group). The duration of allopathotherapy effect reached 69 months comparing to 1218 months of hiruditherapy one, being twice longer. Improving the patients coagulation hemostasis, hirudotherapy activated cardiovascular activity favoring the increase of social adequacy in CUWs with presbyacuzis praecox.
Conclusions. It has been shown that hirudotherapy as a kind of naturopathy has significant advantages over alopatotherapy by the absence of side effects, 23.0% higher and twice as long as improvement of auditory functions. Hirudotherapy, as an effective therapeutic and recreational measures, should be more widely implemented in clinical practice in order to minimize the development and progression of diseases in the special population of people who have been exposed to ionizing radiation due to the Chornobyl catastrophe to continue their vitality.
Key words: radioactive irradiation, sensoro-neural hearing loss by presbyacuzis praecox, audiometry, vestibulometry, hirudotherapy.

Problems of Radiation Medicine and Radiobiology.
2019;24:522-536. doi: 10.33145/2304-8336-2019-24-522-536

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