National Academy of Medical Sciences of Ukraine
State Institution "The National Research Center for Radiation Medicine"


ISSN 2313-4607 (Online)
ISSN 2304-8336 (Print)

Problems of Radiation Medicine and Radiobiology

  
 

   

O. V. Kaminskyi1, O. V. Kopylova1, D. E. Afanasyev1, K. M. Loganovsky1, V. V. Talko1,
I. M. Muraveva1, I. G. Chikalova1, O. V. Tepla1, I. O. Kiseliova2, N. V. Bryliova1, K. O. Gryschenko1,
L. O. Tsvet1, O. Ya. Pleskach1

1State Institution «National Research Center for radiation Medicine of the National Academy of medical Sciences of Ukraine», 53 Yury Illienko str., Kyiv, 04050, Ukraine
2Kyiv City Clinical Endocrinology Center, 22 Reitarska str., Kyiv, 01034, Ukraine

HYPERPARATHYROIDISM AND PARATHYROID LESIONS IN THE ChNPP ACCIDENT SURVIVORS

Objective. Study of the status of parathyroid glands in individuals exposed to ionizing radiation as a result of the ChNPP accident and comparison with the general population of Ukraine.
Materials and methods. Subjects exposed as a result of the ChNPP accident (n = 1,348) and people from the general population of Ukraine (n=655) were examined. Diagnostic ultrasound scan of thyroid and parathyroid glands (PTG) was conducted in all study subjects. The technique of parathyroid ultrasound screening was developed, which led to an increase in the efficiency of their imaging. Additionally, the 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D), parathyroid hormone, ionized calcium and some other parameters were selectively assayed in serum.
Results. High incidence of parathyroid hyperplasia was detected 27–32 years after the irradiation in persons exposed as a result of the ChNPP accident, especially in evacuees from the 30-km exclusion zone (71.4%; χ2Yates’ = 24.1; š = 0) and residents of radilogically contaminated territories (41.7%; χ2Yates’ = 6.45; p < 0.01) having no primary hyperparathyroidism. High prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency and deficiency was revealed in all study subgroups, namely in 83.1 % of the general population of Ukraine along with a bit better vitamin D status in the ChNPP accident survivors i.e. the vitamin insufficiency and deficiency was found in 78.7 % of them. Incidence of hyperparathyroidism, predominantly of the secondary (normocalcemic) one, was 33.8 % among persons exposed as a result of the ChNPP accident (p > 0.3) being somewhat higher than in the general population of Ukraine (26.1%), despite abovementioned better supply of vitamin D.
Conclusions. There is a widespread insufficiency or deficiency of vitamin D (over 78.7%) in the population of Ukraine in general providing an unfavorable background for the higher prevalence of health disorders associated with calcium and phosphorus metabolism. The latter features parathyroid hyperplasia and musculosceletal, immune, cardiovascular, and endocrine system comorbidities. Such disorders should exacerbate with a secondary increase in parathyroid hormone secretion (26.1 %). Higher incidence of normocalcemic hyperparathyroidism (33.8% versus 26.1%) against a background of better vitamin D status among irradiated individuals indicates the existence of other factors, where the past combined effects of Chornobyl radioactive fallout and external parathyroid exposure are most likely to be involved. This could explain the greater number of cases of parathyroid hyperplasia and hyperparathyroidism among the exposed subjects. However the additional precise studies are required here with clarification of the personal data in population groups of the ChNPP accident survivors. Participants of the ChNPP accident clean-up work in the «iodine period» of 1986 are of especial concern here. Besides that, the study population should be expanded with inclusion of subjects exposed in prenatal period.
Key words: ChNPP accident, irradiation, accident survivors, participants of the ChNPP accident clean-up work, ionizing radiation, parathyroids, hyperplasia, hyperparathyroidism, thyroid gland.

Problems of Radiation Medicine and Radiobiology.
2019;24:380-394. doi: 10.33145/2304-8336-2019-24-380-394

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